Floating gardens as a way to keep farming despite climate change Bangladesh’s floating gardens, built to grow food during flood seasons, could offer a sustainable solution for parts of the world prone to flooding because of climate change, a new study has found.The study, published recently in the Journal of Agriculture, Food and Environment, suggests that floating gardens might not only help reduce food insecurity, but could also provide income for rural households in flood-prone parts of Bangladesh.“We are focused here on adaptive change for people who are victims of climate change, but who did not cause climate change,” said Craig Jenkins, a co-author of the study and academy professor emeritus of sociology at The Ohio State University. “There’s no ambiguity about it: Bangladesh didn’t cause the carbon problem, and yet it is already experiencing the effects of climate change.”Bangladesh’s floating gardens began hundreds of years ago. The gardens are made from native plants that float in the rivers – traditionally, water hyacinths – and operate almost like rafts, rising and falling with the waters. Historically, they were used to continue growing food during rainy seasons when rivers filled with water.The farmers – or their families – layer the plants about three feet deep, creating a version of raised-bed gardens that float in the water. Then, they plant vegetables inside those rafts. As the raft-plants decompose, they release nutrients, which help feed the vegetable plants. Those vegetable plants typically include okra, some gourds, spinach and eggplant. Sometimes, they also include spices like turmeric and ginger.Floating gardens are also in use in parts of Myanmar, Cambodia and India. The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization has named Bangladesh’s floating gardens a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System.But as climate change has affected the volume of water in those rivers – creating extreme highs and floods, along with extreme lows and droughts – floating gardens have become a way for rural farmers to keep producing food during unpredictable weather. Climate change increases weather extremes and the severity of flooding, and droughts as well.The researchers wanted to understand whether Bangladesh’s floating gardens could be a sustainable farming practice as climate change continues to cause floods and droughts, and to see whether the gardens bring better food security to individual households.“They’ve got to be able to grow specific crops that can survive with minimal soil,” said Jenkins, who is also a research scientist and former director of the Ohio State Mershon Center for International Security Studies. “And in Bangladesh, a lot of small farmers that had typically relied on rice crops are moving away from those because of the effects of climate change and better returns from alternative crops.”For this study, the researchers interviewed farming families who use floating gardens, and found strong evidence that floating gardens provide stability, both in the amount of food available to feed rural populations and in a farming family’s income, despite the instability created by a changing climate.They found that farmers typically use hybrid seeds, which must be repurchased each year, to grow a diverse range of vegetables in the floating gardens. The gardens are also susceptible to pests, so farmers end up spending some money on both pesticides and fertilizers. But even with those expenses, they found, benefits outweighed costs.Generally, entire families work on the gardens, the researchers found: Women, children and the elderly prepare seedlings and collect aquatic plants to build gardens. Men cultivate the gardens and protect them from raiders. Some families also farm fish in the waters around their floating gardens.One farmer told the research team that he earns up to four times as much money from the gardens as from traditional rice paddies.Still, the system could use improvements, the researchers found. Farmers often take out high-interest loans to cover the investment costs of building the beds and stocking them with plants. Lower-interest loans from responsible government or non-governmental organizations could alleviate that burden, they found. /Public Release. 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WoundStat prices will fall around its competitors’, at $20 to $80 per pack.“Any new product is going to have to go up against existing standards in testing conducted by the military in order to be adopted,” said Devinder S. Bawa, TraumaCure’s chief executive. Now that WoundStat has FDA approval, the focus of the eight-employee company is to help the armed forces study ballistic injuries and the capabilities of the compound, “and really to get our product ready for launch.” In 2004, researchers began searching for a product that could stop heavy bleeding a leading cause of death during combat. A handful of the substance is smacked and massaged into wounds, sometimes into places a blood-loss-stopping tourniquet cannot go, halting severe bleeding within a couple of minutes, researchers say. WoundStat was developed by three researchers at Virginia Commonwealth University. TraumaCure, however, has competition. The HemCon bandage, made with a blood-clotting agent derived from shrimp shells, is Army standard issue. And a substance called QuikClot, used by the Marines and Air Force, does to blood what its name implies. The compound was licensed to Bethesda, Md.-based TraumaCure Inc. last year. The company plans to start offering WoundStat to U.S. military forces by late fall, followed by rollouts to first responders such as firefighters and emergency medical technicians. Company officials say a conservative sales figure for the market is $200 million a year. “This is a very big deal for us,” said Ivelina S. Metcheva, director of VCU’s Office of Technology Transfer, which works to commercialize the school’s research. Metcheva said WoundStat has the largest market potential ever developed out of VCU. RICHMOND, Va. Potentially deadly, severe bleeding on battlefields and in emergencies has a new savior: a product developed at Virginia’s largest university. WoundStat has been approved for use on humans and commercial sale by the Food and Drug Administration. It looks like a cross between flour and cat litter can be shoved into wounds to quickly stop hemorrhaging.
By ALLEN McQUISITON The Jemez AgencyMany homeowners often wonder why the limit on their homeowner’s insurance policy is more than the market value of their home. In some cases, there can be a drastic difference between what you recently paid for your home versus how much insurance coverage you have. It’s just a way for the insurance company to get more premium, right?Not quite. Keep in mind that market value and replacement cost value are two completely different things. For instance, a two-story home with 2,000 square feet of living area can have a range of market values contingent on a variety of factors:What neighborhood is the home located in?What school district is the home in?How has the market been for recently sold homes with similar characteristics?How is the current inventory of homes in the area?The answers to these questions, among others, can substantially change the market value of a home.The cost to build a home is more fixed in nature. The cost of brick, lumber, siding, etc. doesn’t vary nearly as much from one neighborhood area to the next. With that in mind, the cost to build a home in an area where the market values aren’t as strong shouldn’t vary much from areas where the values are higher.In many situations, the replacement cost of a home is more than the market value because it simply costs more to build homes from the ground up as opposed to purchasing an existing home. Of course there are exceptions, and in many cases this varies by area of the country, but it is not at all unusual to see your homeowner insurance declarations show a limit of insurance that is higher than the current market value of the property.Having an adequate limit of insurance is crucial in the event of a loss to your home. If you’re still concerned about your limit of insurance, be sure to reach out to your insurance agent to review the replacement cost estimate that has been completed for your home. He or she will make sure that your home is properly protected and that your limit of insurance – which may be more than the market value – is correct.
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POLAND: ZNTK Olenica has extensively modernised a PKP Intercity Class EU07 electric locomotive as a pilot for a possible wider programme. The changes have uprated the locomotive from 2 MW to 3·2 MW, and increased top speed from 125 km/h to the 160 km/h permitted on an increasing proportion of the Polish networkDC traction motors have been refurbioshed by Emit Zychlin as EY541X4 three-phase AC motors fed by a Medcom FT-1600-3000 inverter. Enika has supplied auxiliary equipment, and IPS Tabor microprocessor diagnostic and control systems as well as pneumatic equipment. Around 413 EU07 locomotives remain from 488 built to an English Electric design by Pafawag and HCP in 1965-92. The long production runs meant the later locomotives were already outdated when new.The modernised locomotive is now undergoing tests, and PKP Intercity is interested in ordering at least 20 more.
A July Pew report indicated that 57% of U.S. internet users have watched videos online and most of them share what they find with others. The 18-29 age group, at 76%, watches the most online video. Our network blog last100 further reported that 19% of adults watch online video on a typical day. News is the most popular genre of online video with every age group except for those ages 18-29, for whom comedy is watched more. YouTube is the most popular destination, with 27% of online video consumers saying they watch or download video from YouTube. It’s on that latter point that this week’s poll will revolve. Read/WriteWeb readers are likely to use a larger variety of online video sites than the Pew audience, so we’re curious what the results of this poll will be. Note that there are literally hundreds of video sharing sites on the Web – we listed a lot of them in our February Online Video Index. So we can’t hope to include them all. But shout out in the comments if your favorite online video site isn’t in the list. 8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market richard macmanus Tags:#Polls#web A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… Related Posts Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic…
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