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Study links delay of gratification to how brain structures are connected

first_imgPinterest Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Email LinkedIncenter_img Share The ability to delay gratification in chimpanzees is linked to how specific structures of the brain are connected and communicate with each other, according to researchers at Georgia State University and Kennesaw State University.Their findings were published June 3 in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.This study provides the first evidence in primates, including humans, of an association between delay of gratification performance and white matter connectivity between the caudate and the dorsal prefrontal cortex in the right hemisphere, said Dr. Robert Latzman, assistant professor in the Department of Psychology at Georgia State, who led the study with Dr. William Hopkins, professor of neuroscience at Georgia State. The researchers found higher white matter connectivity between the caudate and dorsal prefrontal cortex in the right hemisphere of the brain was associated with the learning of delay of gratification.Delay of gratification, the need to control emotional and behavioral impulses, is one of the earliest demands placed on individuals and is of critical importance, Latzman said.“Delay of gratification or self-control is core to a number of different types of mental illnesses, most notably ADHD (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder),” said Latzman. “This ability and the developmental process that occurs when children learn to delay gratification and inhibit an immediate want for a longer-term goal is a hugely important developmental milestone.”There is a considerable need for understanding connections among brain regions associated with delay of gratification abilities, such as the two regions that showed significant results in this study, Latzman said.The task used to measure delay of gratification in chimpanzees in this study is a parallel task to that used in a series of famous experiments conducted by psychologist Walter Mischel at Stanford University in the 1960s and 1970s. Preschoolers were placed alone in a room furnished with a small desk and on the desk were two marshmallows and a bell. The researcher told the child he had to leave the room, but when he returned, the child could eat both marshmallows. If the child wanted to eat one marshmallow before the researcher returned, the child could ring the bell and eat one, but not both. When the researcher shut the door, some children ate the marshmallow right away and others tried to distract themselves, according to The New York Times.In follow-up studies, Mischel found that delay of gratification abilities at age 4 can predict a number of behaviors into adolescence and adulthood, including planning and reasoning abilities, control of negative emotions, standardized test scores, higher educational attainment, better coping abilities, fewer interpersonal difficulties, less substance use and higher self-esteem and self-worth more than 20 years later, according to Latzman.The current study involved 49 chimpanzees that were trained to perform a delay of gratification task. Researchers placed grapes in a transparent PVC pipe with a closed bottom and trained the chimpanzees to delay gratification in receiving the grapes. The study used chimpanzees because their self-control abilities, as compared to other model species such as monkeys, closely resemble those of human children and both their neuroanatomy and neural development are quite similar to humans. They also share a very high degree of genetic overlap, Latzman said.“We trained them to learn that if they waited, the one grape becomes two grapes and two grapes become three grapes and three grapes become four grapes and so on. There’s variability in how well they do and it was this variability that we were interested in,” Latzman said.All chimpanzees received DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) brain scans during their annual physical examination. Data were acquired that allowed the researchers to examine white matter tracts, or bundles of neurons that connect one part of the nervous system with another, between the caudate and prefrontal cortex. The white matter connectivity between these brain structures was compared to the chimpanzees’ delay of gratification abilities.last_img read more

Initial tests negative for outbreak E coli in German sprouts

first_imgJun 6, 2011 (CIDRAP News) – German authorities investigating a possible sprout link to a large Escherichia coli outbreak said today that lab samples are negative so far, dashing hopes for a quick end to the investigation and adding more confusion to the search for the source.Yesterday officials in Germany’s Lower Saxony state said at a press conference that they found clear signs that sprouts produced by an organic farm in the northern part of the country were responsible for the illnesses, but today the area’s agriculture ministry said 23 of 40 samples taken from the facility have tested negative for the outbreak strain, the UK-based Guardian newspaper reported today. Testing is still under way on 17 more samples.In a statement today, Germany’s health ministry said the negative tests don’t exclude sprouts as a source, and it warned consumers not to expect a quick identification of the outbreak source, the Guardian reported.The outbreak strain, E coli O104:H4, has so far been linked to 1,672 enterohemorrhagic infections and 661 cases of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a severe and potentially fatal kidney complication, according to the latest update today from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). The number of fatalities stands at 22.The World Health Organization (WHO) said in its updated background information today that the outbreak cases have been reported from 12 countries, and all but one patient lived in or traveled to Germany. In one case, an individual got sick after having contact with an infected visitor from northern Germany.Michael Osterholm, PhD, MPH, director of the University of Minnesota’s Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, publisher of CIDRAP News, said that complicating the message about the possible sprout threat by releasing partial testing results, especially after a round of earlier testing miscues with Spanish cucumbers, signals “borderline incompetence” among those leading Germany’s outbreak investigation.He said response to the outbreak so far undermines confidence in health officials, a problem that extends beyond German borders to the global public health community. Osterholm said it’s critical that investigators on the scene stick with an epidemiologic focus to not only look carefully at what both cases (people who got sick) and controls (healthy people) consumed, but also to conduct trace-back investigations on the products both groups consumed.”That’s how you end up discerning which products are involved, especially if multiple products have been implicated,” he said.The investigation would also benefit from more specifics about illness onsets in order to help determine if the outbreak is ongoing or starting to taper off, Osterholm said. He added that it’s unclear how German health officials are calculating illness-onset dates. A longer illness onset date has been highlighted as an unusual feature in the outbreak, but Osterholm said more information is needed to determine of they’re referring to the onset of diarrhea illness or HUS, which when it occurs typically begins 12 to 15 days after the start of diarrhea symptoms.Daniel Bahr, Germany’s health minister, along with other health officials said hospitals in Hamburg are having a difficult time managing the surge of patients with E coli infections, according the Guardian report.In other developments, European Union (EU) health ministers met today to discuss the latest health developments with the outbreak, and the EU’s agriculture ministers will meet tomorrow to discuss food safety and economic impacts of the event, according to an EU statement. Because Spanish cucumbers were wrongly implicated in the outbreak and health warnings for other produce items have tamped down fresh vegetable sales, the ministers will discuss how to compensate producers for big losses.Last week the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) said it imports little fresh produce from the EU and that it has stepped up surveillance on shipments of suspected vegetables. Today, Sebastian Cianci, spokesman for the FDA, told CIDRAP News that the increased surveillance also applies to all sprouts and sprout seeds from Germany and Spain. He added that the United States hasn’t received any shipments of sprouts or sprout seeds from those two countries since at least October.See also:Jun 6 Guardian reportJun 6 ECDC updateJun 6 WHO background informationJun 5 CIDRAP News story “Sprouts linked to European E coli outbreak”last_img read more

Autopsies of COVID-19 patients reveal clotting concerns

first_imgA study of autopsy findings of the first 12 patients who died of COVID-19 in a hospital in Hamburg, Germany, has found that 7 (58%) of them had undiagnosed deep vein thrombosis, suggesting that the virus may cause abnormal blood clotting.In the prospective cohort study, published yesterday in the Annals of Internal Medicine, researchers discovered that the direct cause of death in four patients was massive pulmonary embolism from deep vein blood clots in the legs that lodged in a lung artery, causing a blockage.High viral RNA loads, abnormal lung findingsHigh concentrations of COVID-19 genetic material were detected in the lungs, and also in the liver, kidney, or heart in five of six patients who had moderate viremia (COVID-19 viruses in the blood). All had abnormal lung computed tomography (CT) findings, and eight of them (67%) had alveolar damage indicative of early acute respiratory distress syndrome.Most lungs were congested and heavy, with a maximum combined weight of 3,420 grams (more than 7.5 pounds) in one patient. Mean combined lung weight was 1,988 grams (4.4 pounds). In comparison, standard lung weights for men are 840 grams (1.9 pounds) and 639 grams (1.4 pounds) for women. Only two patients had relatively low lung weights (550 and 890 grams).In many cases, the lungs showed signs of mild pleurisy, inflammation of the thin layers of tissue that separate the lungs from the chest wall, as well as a patchy pattern consisting of pale areas contrasting with slightly protruding, firm, reddish-blue areas with high capillary-to-fiber ratios. The lungs were firm but crumbled easily.In the 10 patients who died in the hospital, initial laboratory tests showed elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase (indicating tissue damage), D-dimer (indicating blood clots), and C-reactive protein (indicating inflammation or heart damage), as well as mild thrombocytopenia (low levels of platelets needed for clotting) in 4 of 10 patients.Median patient age was 73 years (range, 52 to 87), 75% were men, and all had underlying medical conditions, the most common of which were coronary heart disease and asthma (50%) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (25%). Many were obese, with a mean body mass index of 28.7 kg/m2.Anti-clotting drugs may decrease riskThe authors said that COVID-19 may lead to pulmonary embolism by activating the coagulation system or causing a cytokine storm, in which high levels of proinflammatory cytokines start to attack the body’s own tissues rather than just the virus. Factors such as immune-mediated damage from antiphospholipid antibodies involved in autoimmune responses may also contribute.Regardless of the cause, the researchers said that doctors should always suspect pulmonary embolism in COVID-19 patients who have deteriorating heart and lung function. “That patients with COVID-19 who have increased D-dimer levels, a sign of coagulopathy, may benefit from anticoagulant treatment seems plausible,” they wrote.They called for further research into the molecular mechanism and clinical incidence of coronavirus-related death and possible treatment options such as the use of anti-clotting therapies for COVID-19 patients.last_img read more

Worthington discloses third quarter 2016 results

first_imgSubscribe Get instant access to must-read content today!To access hundreds of features, subscribe today! At a time when the world is forced to go digital more than ever before just to stay connected, discover the in-depth content our subscribers receive every month by subscribing to gasworld.Don’t just stay connected, stay at the forefront – join gasworld and become a subscriber to access all of our must-read content online from just $270.last_img

It’s not either/or

first_imgSubscribe to Building today and you will benefit from:Unlimited access to all stories including expert analysis and comment from industry leadersOur league tables, cost models and economics dataOur online archive of over 10,000 articlesBuilding magazine digital editionsBuilding magazine print editionsPrinted/digital supplementsSubscribe now for unlimited access.View our subscription options and join our community Stay at the forefront of thought leadership with news and analysis from award-winning journalists. Enjoy company features, CEO interviews, architectural reviews, technical project know-how and the latest innovations.Limited access to building.co.ukBreaking industry news as it happensBreaking, daily and weekly e-newsletters To continue enjoying Building.co.uk, sign up for free guest accessExisting subscriber? LOGIN Subscribe now for unlimited access Get your free guest access  SIGN UP TODAYlast_img read more

Sickening scenes at old hospital site

first_imgThe houses were built right on the boundary of the hospital site, and with the fencing stolen, it gives easy access to the homes. Residents living on the boundary of the old GF Jooste hospital site said since it closed down, the vacant building has attracted all the wrong elements, with vandals and thieves now also targeting their homes.The houses in Amandla Street, Tambo Village, were built right on the side border of the old hospital, and residents fear for their safety, as thieves have even stolen the bricks of the building. Gaironeesa Booley said since there is very little left to steal from the building, thieves have broken into her home three times. On Thursday February 16, her home was targeted for the fourth time, when a burglar tried to gain entry into her home while they were sleeping. The security gate at her front door was damaged when someone tried to break in during the early morning hours. “It’s terrible. We are constantly living in fear. They put our lives in danger. Our roof is already damaged because of some building rubble that fell on it while the vandals were busy ripping out building material from the hospital. We have replaced our vibracrete wall three times already, but every time the slabs are stolen. We have also closed up our back door with concrete, because they kept coming in through there. One night they even tried to knock that out as well. Now that wall – that is covering where our back door used to be – is full of cracks. My family and I have been living here for nine years, and it was never this bad – until the hospital closed down,” Ms Booley said. Betty Meveni, whose house is just opposite Ms Booley’s, said when she spoke out against the wrongdoings of the vandals, they told her that the hospital did not belong to her, so she had no say. “Before the hospital closed down, we had no problems like this. Now you find youngsters loitering and people dump here now, and I even caught a youngster defecating on the premises and I scolded him. Most of them get crazy from the drugs they use and then they come and break into people’s houses. We have complained to the police so many times, but they do nothing. When you report a case, they cross-question you that’s the victim, instead of the perpetrators. Everyone in this community must stand up against the perpetrators. It can’t go on like this. The parents of these youngters must also stop standing up for the wrongdoings of their children. They even fight with the security on the premises. These securities also fear for their lives, and they now stay at the police station when they are expected to work night shift,” Ms Meveni said. She added that the community want the hospital to be rebuilt on the site. “We want a hospital here. We don’t have a car. We are far from the other hospitals, and the ambulance service don’t go into certain areas. Everyone knew that it was a bad idea to close the hospital. Heideveld is a community health care centre and their trauma unit is not equipped to deal with the all the emergencies. They have too little staff and the facility is too small. They also take patients with serious mental disabilities there, and I know of at least one case where another patient was attacked by someone with a mental disability. I’ve also seen how men and women must lay in the same ‘ward’ at Heideveld’s trauma unit. We are struggling here. We are traumatised, and our pleas fall on deaf ears. It’s like we are nothing – but are human beings too,” Ms Meveni said. The Athlone News asked the City of Cape Town how its Problem Building by-law can be implemented in this case. According to the City’s definition, a “problem building” includes any building or portion of a building: that appears to have been abandoned by the owner with or without the consequence; that rates or other service charges are not being paid; that is derelict in appearance, overcrowded or is showing signs of becoming unhealthy, unsanitary, unsightly or objectionable; that is the subject of written complaints in respect of criminal activities, including drug dealings and prostitution; that is illegally occupied; where refuse or waste material is accumulated, dumped, stored or deposited with the exception of licensed waste disposal facilities; or that is partially completed or structurally unsound and is a threat or danger to the safety of the general public. The owner of the building could face a fine of up to R300 000. In this case, the Western Cape provincial government is the owner of the building. Priya Reddy, the City spokesperson, did not answer the Athlone News’ questions directly, and was only willing to state that: “The City of Cape Town has noted increasing concerns about the state of the Old GF Jooste Hospital site. Officials from various departments have been on site and have noted the deterioration of the building. City Health is already putting plans in place to block-bait the premises, as well as the surrounding area to curb the potential occurrence of rodents and associated health risks. In terms of the general state of the building, we are engaging the Western Cape Government as the owners of the site, in a bid to ensure public safety but also to prevent further degradation of site.” According to Byron la Hoe, the spokesperson for the provincial department of Public Works and Transport , the department “aligns itself with law enforcement agencies to prevent these activities from occurring”. He added: “But, to date, attempts haven’t yielded sufficiently positive results. Given the current climate in the Manenberg area, security personnel are fearing for their lives. The Department of Public Works and Transport (DPWT) is planning on securing the site by erecting fences and lighting. Securing the site and improving safety measures on site will require a mandatory procurement process. We are therefore unable to disclose an exact timeframe for these interventions. No immediate decision has yet been made by relevant authorities on the future development of the site. DTPW is preparing the necessary documentation to ensure a resolution to the future of the site at the earliest possibility.” Meanwhile, Premier Helen Zille said in her state of the province address (SOPA), that a regional hospital is needed for Manenberg. “Our Department of Health’s planning indicates that a regional hospital, a necessity for future healthcare demand, will require seven hectares of land, as it will comprise 550 beds – much larger than each of our district hospitals in Mitchell’s Plain and Khayelitsha,” Ms Zille said. She added that a request for proposals will also be issued by the provincial Department of Public Works this year to use all or part of the former hospital site on Duinefontein Road for skills and community development use.last_img read more

£39,800 National Lottery support to help Secure Future for Ellisland Farm

first_imgCommenting on the award, Sheriff Principal Ian Abercrombie QC, Chair of the Ellisland Trust said “We are delighted to have received this funding and are confident that the award will support our ambitions to develop a first class visitor experience doing justice to the incredible talent of Robert Burns, the man whose vision created it over 200 years ago and who is still so important to the story of Dumfrieshire today.”Chair of the Friends of Ellisland Farm, Russell Williamson added, “Throughout its history the Friends of Ellisland have worked tirelessly to maintain this important site, and we are excited about this support from HLF, and to be part of the the next stage of its story.”Ríona McMorrow, Acting Head of HLF Scotland, said: “Resilient Heritage allows the heritage sector to build financial independence and resilience in a changing economic landscape of reduced public funding. It provides a tailored package of support that responds to the individual needs of organisations such as The Ellisland Trust so, thanks to National Lottery players, they can not only survive in these challenging financial times, but thrive.”Ellisland Farm is managed by the Ellisland Trust established in 1922, which cares for the lands and farm of Ellisland, farmed by Robert Burns between 1788 and 1791. We are an independent charity and are entrusted with the care of Ellisland ‘for the benefit of the British Nation’. We champion the incredible history of Ellisland and the heritage of Robert Burns through our public programmes, collections, site, house and landscape.Our mission is to celebrate and share the extraordinary story of the rural home built by Scottish National Bard Robert Burns; a story of hospitality, of an inspirational landscape and of creative talent.Ellisland is an important part of the Robert Burns story, being the only house that Burns built for himself and the site which inspired him to write some of his most famous poems, including Auld Lang Syne, Tam o’Shanter and Ae Fond Kiss. Burns lived here with his family 1788-1791. AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to LinkedInLinkedInLinkedInEllisland Farm, the rural home of National Bard Robert Burns in Dumfries and Galloway, has received a National Lottery grant of £39,800 for an exciting heritage project, Securing a Sustainable Future for Burns’ Rural Home near Dumfries.Made possible by money raised by National Lottery players, the project focuses on identifying how best to manage the site to champion its incredible history; making this important part of the Robert Burns story more accessible through imaginative use of his house, the collections and the inspirational landscape.Supported through the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) the project will review the treasures of the site and explore options to improve the visitor experience and make the operation more sustainable. We will also have the opportunity to speak to current and potential audiences to identify what the local community, partners and visitors would like to see at the site. Importantly the project will identify the best method of governing and managing the museum in the future and will support a range of fundraising initiatives. We hope this will be the first stage of a major development for a place chosen as a home by Burns for himself and his family, and which provides an unrivalled insight into his aspirations as a man, husband, father and writer.last_img read more

Dominica Dementia Foundation hosts panel discussion

first_img Share Share 64 Views   no discussions LocalNews Dominica Dementia Foundation hosts panel discussion by: – May 2, 2017 Press ReleaseROSEAU, Dominica — The Dominica Dementia Foundation held a panel discussion on the topic “Understanding Dementia” and Creating dementia friendly communities in Dominica.The event took place at The University of the West Indies open campus and commenced at 6pm on Friday April 28th.The panelist included Ms. Rianna Patterson, Founder of Dominica Dementia Foundation alongside Dr. Dorian Shillingford.Ms. Patterson expressed her deep concerns for individuals who have Dementia in Dominica. She explained the importance of creating relationships with the families with the intention to collaborate on building a dementia friendly environment in the country.She further went on to state that business owners and leaders of organizations should be more encouraged to be mindful of the behaviors and attitudes of the customers that they deal with on a daily basis, in terms of those who suffer from a mental illness. “Persons who have Dementia suffer from poor visual perception, which means certain objects may cause severe anxiety.They may not be able to see the image clearly or it actually looks like something completely different and that scares them,” ms Patterson stated. She went on to mention that. “The youth and caregivers also play an integral role in the lives of those who have Dementia. We need to ensure that they have the necessary skills to perform their duties and the emotional support needed to carry out their obligations sufficiently.”She further commented that, “In Dominica, it is not unusual to see a young person playing the role of a caregiver in a small family. Once you are taking care of someone you are automatically a caregiver.”Throughout the discussions members of the audience who were given the opportunity to share their views, suggested that we have a system in place for Young caregivers to guide and provide emotional support when necessary.Dr. Dorian Shillingford stressed on the amount of persons who suffer from Dementia globally. “it’s an epidemic growth which will continue to grow and why we need to prepare for the change as a country”, he stated. Continuing with his presentation, Dr. Shillingford mentioned that , “Caregivers don’t normally get depressed, however, they do suffer from caregiver stress.” After which he briefly explained the medical aspects of Dementia.Thought out the discussion views were exchanged on the stigma attached to this mental issue and how organizations and communities in Dominica can assist in breaking the barriers together.The Dominica Dementia Foundation hopes to hold several more of these types of discussions in the future, which will definitely assist in raising awareness on the issue.center_img Share Sharing is caring! Tweetlast_img read more

Marked Increase in Stay Over Visitors for First Quarter of 2019

first_img Sharing is caring! Share 75 Views   no discussions Share LocalNews Marked Increase in Stay Over Visitors for First Quarter of 2019 by: – August 7, 2019 Tweet The Ministry of Tourism has reported a significant improvement in the tourism industry where visitor arrivals are concerned.Minister for Tourism, Hon Robert Tonge announced that a sterling performance in visitor arrivals in the first quarter of 2019 was recorded at forty-three thousand four hundred and forty-seven (43,447) stay over visitors resulting in a 67% increase over 2018 and an 8% increase over 2017.He also noted a significant progress in the yachting sector with an increase in arrivals of over 32%.Hon Tonge expressed that these statistics debunk the opinions of those who doubted the island’s ability to recover following the ravages of Hurricane Maria in 2017.The Minister thanked all the stakeholders who came together. “I really want to thank all of the stakeholders who came together to make this a reality,” he stated.“It’s not the Ministry of Tourism alone to do it by themselves but it’s all of the stakeholders, all of the various ministerial departments coming together and making this a reality.”While supporting the National Budget as presented by the Finance Minister, Hon Tonge highlighted the various improvements made within the Tourism industry. Minister for Tourism and Urban Renewal Robert Tonge Sharelast_img read more

Construction Continues on Five-Star Sanctuary Rainforest Resort & Spa

first_img Share BusinessLocalNews Construction Continues on Five-Star Sanctuary Rainforest Resort & Spa by: – July 14, 2020 Tweet Share                                        Sanctuary Rainforest Resort (Artist Rendering) 314 Views   no discussions Share Sharing is caring! Construction on the five-star Sanctuary Rainforest Resort & Spa is in the Roseau Valley continues, according to the Hon Parliamentary Representative for the valley, Dr Irving McIntyre.Named as a source of economic stimulation in his area, so far the project is in the excavation stage by the contractor, Vital Developers Ltd.Sanctuary Rainforest Resort (Artist Rendering)Dr McIntyre said,  “The interesting things about this is most of the work being done now, we are employing people from the Roseau valley. The majority might be from Laudat because of the close proximity, but that’s employment for the Roseau Valley.Seventy-two eco-friendly villas will be built in Providence Estate in Laudat extending across 10 acres.                         Groundbreaking ceremony (November 2019)The project is to embody the green construction model that will blend into and preserve the natural environment.last_img read more